In the United Kingdom there are around nine million deaf and hard of hearing people. There are many reasons for this, of which they can either be congenital, meaning before birth, or acquired, meaning after birth. Below is a list of causes:


This is the most common cause of hearing loss, with around 6.5 million of those deaf and hard of hearing people in the UK being aged over 60. Hearing loss due to ageing is a natural process called Presbycusis and can not be stopped. Hearing aids can be a great help to those who have hearing problems due to ageing.


Hearing loss because of noise is dependent on both the level of noise and the length of exposure, though even short exposure to loud noise can sometimes cause hearing loss. The effects are unlikely to take consequence until later life, and symptoms are likely to go unnoticed, which is why you should be careful in environments such as loud clubs, and when using ear phones. At work, employers are required by ‘Noise at Work’ regulations to take precautions for the safety of your hearing.


Hearing loss caused by genetics is because DNA has been affected, or as scientists term, mutated. For instance, if a mutated gene interferes with some part of the hearing process it can cause deafness. Genetic conditions that cause hearing loss include Usher’s Syndrome, where people are born hard of hearing and also later develop vision problems, and Teacher Collins Syndrome, which is a defect affecting facial development.


Head trauma, puncturing of the eardrum, possibly by foreign objects such as cotton swabs, and quick changes in air pressure are forms of injury that can cause hearing loss.


Earwax is made by the body to clean and lubricate the ears, and also provides protection against bacteria. However, ear wax can build up on occasion and this may cause the ear canal to become obstructed, blocking the path of sound. This condition is usually easily remedied.

Ear Infections

Ear infections, sometimes known as Otitis Media, are caused by bacteria, and can cause swelling in the middle ear and the build up of fluid, obstructing the travel of sound.


Tinnitus is a ringing or buzzing in the head that often sounds like it is coming from outside, though the sound can differ in many cases. It can often sound like it is beating in tune with your heart beat, known as Pulsatile Tinnitus. It can be awkward and distressing for those affected, but is not life threatening.


Tumours are swellings created by the irregular growth of cells, of which both malignant and benign tumours can cause hearing loss. One such tumour is Cholesteatoma, which is a benign skin cyst that dissolves nearby bones as it gradually grows.

Ototoxic Drugs

Ototoxic drugs are often part of the treatment used for serious diseases such as cancer, hearing loss being one of the possible side effects. The medication can damage hair cells in the inner ear, and can be found in some antibiotics.


Diseases that cause hearing loss are numerous. They include Meningitis, the inflammation of the lining of the brain; Ménière’s disease, a disorder of the inner ear characterised by vertigo and tinnitus; Otosclerosis, an irregular growth of bones in the ear; and Glue ear, a condition common in young children where liquid builds up behind the eardrum, initially runny, only to become thicker.

Other Factors

Sudden hearing loss is when your hearing degrades over a very quick period of time and can be caused by many of the above, including tumours and tinnitus. If you develop sudden hearing loss it is recommended you seek out urgent medical assistance.

Smoking and Obesity have also been linked to hearing loss.